FIELD REPORTS: MERGUI-TAVOY DISTRICT

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FIELD REPORTS: MERGUI-TAVOY DISTRICT

Published date:
Saturday, July 29, 1995

This report is an amalgamation of some of the interviews and information in several recent reports released in Burmese by the Mergui-Tavoy Information Service, based in Karen-controlled areas of Mergui-Tavoy District in southern Burma's Tenasserim Division. The Mergui-Tavoy Information Service is an agency which operates under the Karen National Union's Mergui-Tavoy administration; however, it gathers its information directly from villagers and officers in the areas concerned, and its reports are accurate and consistent with information gathered through sources not affiliated with the KNU. Therefore, in order to help this information get wider distribution KHRG has translated it and prepared this report.

This report is an amalgamation of some of the interviews and information in several recent reports released in Burmese by the Mergui-Tavoy Information Service, based in Karen-controlled areas of Mergui-Tavoy District in southern Burma's Tenasserim Division. The Mergui-Tavoy Information Service is an agency which operates under the Karen National Union's Mergui-Tavoy administration; however, it gathers its information directly from villagers and officers in the areas concerned, and its reports are accurate and consistent with information gathered through sources not affiliated with the KNU. Therefore, in order to help this information get wider distribution KHRG has translated it and prepared this report.

The text often refers to Village LORC, otherwise known as VLORC or Ya Wa Ta, and Township LORC (TLORC, Ma Wa Ta). These are SLORC administrative bodies at the local village and township level. The Village LORC chairman, often referred to by villagers as the SLORC village head, is usually a villager appointed by SLORC (often against his or her will) to be its liaison in the village. The VLORC chairman and his/her committee are responsible for constantly reporting intelligence to the SLORC Army camps, arranging villagers for forced labour, and collecting extortion money demanded by the military. When doing this, the VLORC chairman is entirely under the orders of the SLORC military, and all money he/she collects is passed on directly to them (though there are some VLORC chairmen who willingly cooperate with SLORC and use their power to gain wealth for themselves). Any time the VLORC chairman fails to send the ordered number of forced labourers or the money demanded in full, he or she will be arrested and tortured, possibly even executed. Four townships are mentioned in the report: Ye Pyu, Tavoy, Laung Lone, and Thayet Chaung. Ye Pyu township is north of Tavoy and includes the western portion of the proposed gas pipeline route. Laung Lone Township is between Tavoy and the Andaman Sea coast to the west, Tavoy Township includes Tavoy Town and areas east of it, and Thayet Chaung Township is south of Tavoy.

Some names in this report have been changed or blotted out with 'xxxx'. False names are indicated by showing them in quotation marks.

TOPIC SUMMARY

Ye-Tavoy railway labour (Items #1,4,5), porters (#1-5), army camp labour (#1,2,5), other labour (#2,5), extortion (#1,2,5), looting (#2), killings (#2,3), village burning (#2), land/villages to be destroyed for hydro dam (#1), land destroyed/ confiscated for army camps (#2), crop confiscation (#1,2), abuse of women (#2), situation in the schools (#4).

Interviews, etc.

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INTERVIEW #1.

NAME: "U Hla Win"              SEX: M           AGE: 60
FAMILY: Married with 5 children
ADDRESS: Maung Mei Shaung village, Tavoy Township           INTERVIEWED: 19/5/95
DISCRIPTION: Burman Buddhist, farmer

"U Hla Win" has now fled his village and become an internally displaced person.

There are about 700 houses in our village. We have to send 100 villagers as railway labourers every 15 days. If a person's turn comes and he cannot go, he has to pay 1,300 Kyat to the SLORC village chief. We also have to pay 200 Kyat per month for porter fees, and we have to send 6 people every month as porters for the month. When your turn comes to go, if you can't go you have to pay 7,000 Kyat. We also have to pay 90 Kyat each month as a "village development fund".

Now the SLORC is constructing a "telephone exchange" station at our village, so we have to pay 300 Kyat every month for this [per family]. We had to start paying this money in January 1995, and we still have to pay it now. [Note: the telephones will only be available to the military and their supporters.] The Village LORC also collected 1,000 Kyat from each family and 2,000 Kyat from each businessman [small traders] for reconstructing the village school. SLORC soldiers from #401 Battalion came and took by force the raw rubber that belonged to the villagers when it was ready to be sold. The villagers whose rubber was stolen went to the SLORC village head and told him what the soldiers had done, but he took no action.

Now #267 and #269 Battalions from SLORC are constructing their new base camps between Tha Pyeh Chaung and Ze Lone villages [in Tavoy Township]. Our village has to provide them with forced labourers for this every 15 days in rotation. If a person can't go when it is his turn, he has to give 1,500 Kyat to the SLORC village headman.

The District and Township SLORC officials are planning to build a dam on the Maung Mei Shaung river very near to our village. Their plan is to get hydro-electric power. They finished their inspection in April. There were French engineers included in the survey team. According to their survey group, Maung Mei Shaung, Ye Waing, Kyat Inn, Kaung Taing Pyin, Kan Koo, Daing Chaung and Chaung Oo Doh villages, along with thousands of people's farms and orchards, will all be covered by water. The people in all these villages have already been told by the District and Township officers that they will not get any compensation for the loss of their property.

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#2 Incident Reports.

The following incident reports were gathered by the Mergui-Tavoy Information Service.

On March 5, 1995 the SLORC stuck an announcement on a signboard in Nga Man Chaung village, Kyun Su Township, Mergui District. It said that each family in the village would have to give 3,600 Kyat for "development". The first installment due was 2,000 Kyat, to be paid to the Village LORC chairman. It said anyone who failed to pay would be severely punished. The SLORC is reportedly planning to build a car road in Kyun Su Township, so the Township SLORC officials are collecting this money from all the villagers for the expense. The villagers are poor and cannot afford to pay this money, so they are very afraid because the SLORC officers in the area never hesitate to punish people who fail to obey orders.

Women from Tha Pyeh Chaung and Ze Lone villages in Tavoy Township used to earn their living by working on rubber plantations. But now with the increased number of SLORC Battalions in the area, SLORC soldiers are frequently around. Many women are now being raped or harassed on the rubber plantations [the plantations are large, sparse, very shadowy forests of rubber trees where tappers work alone often out of sight of others]. Women who have been raped by SLORC soldiers have made appeals to the Village LORC officials, but they were ignored. Now many women no longer dare to work on the rubber plantations.

SLORC #267 and #269 Battalions are now making their new base camps near Ze Lone, Ze Har and Tha Pyeh Chaung villages in Tavoy Township. To do this they have taken some of the plantations and fields belonging to the villagers by force. They have also cut down mango, durian, and other trees in the villagers' orchards to use for wood. They have ordered villagers to saw wood for them without pay. The villagers are forced to cut down their own mango and durian trees and then saw them up for SLORC. No compensation is paid for the land, orchards, or trees.

SLORC authorities set the amounts of paddy (unmilled rice) which each farmer has to sell to them in 4 Townships under Tavoy District. One basket of paddy is worth 250 to 300 Kyat, but the SLORC only pays the farmers 50 Kyat per basket. If a farmer fails to sell his quota, the SLORC and Village LORC officials come to his house to force him to surrender the quota. If he still does not provide the required amount they arrest him and stop him working on his farm. In the 1994 rainy season, many crops were damaged because of floods so many farmers could not supply the quota. As a result, many farmers were arrested and many farms were confiscated by the SLORC and Village LORC officials, and many farmers are now landless and jobless.

On March 29, 1995 the camp commander of Palaw Gone army camp demanded 1200 bamboo posts and 100 wooden posts from Za Dee Win village.

On April 12, 1995 a column from #103 Infantry Battalion demanded 1,000 Kyats from Za Dee Win village so that the soldiers could enjoy themselves during water festival [April 12-15].

On April 16, 1995 a group of 10 soldiers from Light Infantry Battalion #433 led by Corporal Hla Win together with People's Militia from Za Yat village, Mergui District, opened fire at the passenger boat Tin-Aung-Moe, with 400 passengers on board. Passengers U Kyaw Win and Ma Aye Kyaing were killed. Local villagers and passengers notified the nearest police station about the incident, but when the police learned that the SLORC Army had done the shooting, they took no action.

On April 20, 1995 the camp commander at Palaw Gone army camp demanded 1,000 Kyat from Za Dee Win village to pay for cement used to repair the army camp. On June 2, 1995 the same camp commander demanded 1,500 Kyat from the same village to pay for wood used to repair the camp.

On May 9, 1995 a column from #103 Battalion arrived at Kyauk Leik village, Palaw Township, and demanded 500 bamboo posts to fence their camp at Pa Lan Gone village. The column also took villagers from villages in the area as forced workers to fence the camp.

On May 29 1995, Palaw Township LORC gave an order to 9 villages around Palaw [50 km. north of Mergui] that each village must pay a 10,000 Kyat "football fee" by June 15 1995. The villages are Du Yin Pin Chaung, Palaw Pya, Shan Doh, Mi Kyaun Thet Kyeh, Tamay Me Sa, Bee Cha, Wa Zone Owt, and Sin Toh (name of 9th village not provided). In Palaw Township, there are 23 villages which must compete in the "Palaw Township Rainy Season Football Festival". Each village must pay 30,000 Kyat for its team to compete, and any village which cannot send a team must also pay 30,000 Kyat. These same villages must also pay 10,000 Kyat each for "Tenasserim Division sports fees".

On June 1, 1995 about 150 soldiers from #101 and #103 Infantry Battalions came to Mi Gyung Thike village and column commander Maj. Hla Kyi demanded 10 chickens, 5 ducks, 10 bottles of oil and 2,000 Kyat. The village head had to collect the items from the villagers. On June 15, the same column arrived again to catch porters. The villagers escaped, but then the soldiers went through their empty houses and looted belongings worth a total of 71,000 Kyat from 8 people. These people lost most of their belongings and are now in a very difficult situation.

On June 4, 1995 the Township LORC office demanded 10,000 Kyat from Za Dee Win village for the "rainy season sports fund".

On June 8, 1995 the SLORC Army camp at Palaw village demanded 300 roofing leaf shingles from both Kyauk Leik and Palaw villages in order to roof the buildings at their camp. Each village also has to provide 50 bamboo posts and 25 wood posts for repairing the buildings at their camp.

On June 9, 1995 a column from SLORC #103 Battalion arrived in Bee Cha village, Palaw township and met with the Village LORC chairman and his group. The column commander ordered him to take responsibility for providing food for the soldiers. The chairman and his group collected money from about 150 houses and raised 15,000 Kyat. Then they bought 2 pigs costing a total of 10,000 Kyat. They had to send the 2 pigs and the remaining 5,000 Kyat to the Major of the column.

On June 11, 1995 about 50 soldiers led by Lt. Myint Aung from #103 Infantry Battalion came to Oke Pone village and took 7 baskets of rice, 50 chickens and 2 pigs by force from the villagers.

On June 15, 1995 a column from #101 Infantry Battalion came into Bee Cha village and looted property worth 64,000 Kyat.

Since the beginning of June, units under Strategic Command #1 have arrested villagers in Thayet Chaung, Laung Lone, Tavoy and Ye Pyu townships to be forced porters for their rainy season offensive against KNU 4th Brigade area. At least 1,000 villagers have already been taken.

On June 23, 1995 SLORC Infantry Battalion #25 attacked Thet Byu Chaung village, Tavoy Township, because there were some KNLA soldiers staying in the village. During the fighting, 5 SLORC soldiers tried to escape but were later recaptured by their own Battalion and reportedly shot dead. All the villagers ran away, and the SLORC soldiers looted their belongings and burned down the village, including a primary school and a monastery. There were about 160 families totalling 600 people, predominantly Buddhist, in Thet Byu Chaung village. About 3 million Kyat worth of belongings were lost. According to a porter from Yin village who later escaped, while IB 25 was withdrawing to its base ten exhausted porters who could not walk anymore were shot near Taung Byauk village, Thayet Chaung township, and their bodies were thrown into Min Tha stream.

On June 23, after the SLORC attack on Thet Byu Chaung villagers from Thet Byu Chaung and nearby Kyauk Htoo village (population 800), Sin Koo Ein village (population 1,000), and Nyaung Pin Seik village (population 500) fled their villages and went to a KNU-controlled area near the Thai border, where KNU officials are now arranging support for them.

On June 26, 100 SLORC troops from Infantry Battalion #17 led by Major Tun Hla arrived in Da Kyet village, Tenasserim Township. They suspected Naw Heh Naw and Saw Ben Jeh Moo of contact with rebels, so they searched their houses. They stole 10,000 Kyat in cash and property worth 5,000 Kyat from Naw Heh Naw's house, and property worth about 10,000 Kyat from Saw Ben Jeh Moo.

Around Ba Ta Nya village farmers grow taungya hill rice. Infantry Battalion #17 commander Major Tun Hla gave orders to the farmers that they can't go to their fields and can't stay or sleep there, not even in the daytime. Then he and his troops went and burned down their field huts.

In June, 50 people were called for Ye-Tavoy railway labour from Kanbauk village, Ye Pyu township, which has 800 houses. They were taken away on an Army truck, but the truck didn't stop at the railway labour camp. Instead it went to the Light Infantry Battalion 404 base in Thayet Chaung, and the people were made to be porters.

On July 7 1995, camp commander Warrant Officer Aung Bo from Infantry Battalion #17 summoned Maung Myint Lwin (male, age 20, father's name U Ba Aye) from Thein Doh village and detained him, but didn't tell him any reason. He didn't ask any questions, he just put his carbine rifle to Maung Myint Lwin's head and fired. But the carbine didn't fire. Aung Bo was embarrassed and angry because there were soldiers watching, so he grabbed a domestic cat and killed it with his foot. Then on July 8, the Thein Doh village headman pleaded Aung Bo for Maung Myint Lwin's freedom, and he was released.

Villagers in Mergui and Tavoy districts have been forced to work on the Mergui - Kaw Thaung [Kaw Thaung (Victoria Point) is the southernmost tip of Burma] road project for 4 years now. They must work 7 days per month in rotating shifts, and they receive no money or food for the work.

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INTERVIEW #3.

NAME: "Ko Than Htun"            SEX: M              AGE: 37
FAMILY: Married with 3 children
ADDRESS: xxxx village, Thayet Chaung township           INTERVIEWED: 2/7/95
DISCRIPTION: Burman Buddhist, fisherman

"Ko Than Htun" was taken as a porter for SLORC's major rainy season offensive against the KNU's 4th Brigade area, which is still going on now.

I was arrested on June 4th 1995 while I was ploughing in my field, by the Village LORC authorities and police. Then I was handed to Light Infantry Battalion 404 from Thayet Chaung. I and the other villagers arrested spent 4 days at the LIB 404 base. We were not allowed to go outside, and we were guarded. Altogether there were more than 500 porters. We left Thayet Chaung on June 9th. I had to carry a bag containing about 3 tinfulls [50 kg.] of rice. I served 22 days as a porter.

Porters had to carry about 25-30 viss [40-48 kg.] of ammunition or supplies. The rice [to eat] was not sufficient and if we couldn't walk and carry, the soldiers beat us. I saw some porters who were beaten and left along the path. Two days before escaping, I was suffering from fever so I fell down with my rice sack. For a moment I couldn't wake up. But the soldiers from LIB 404 said that I was faking, and I was kicked. Being a porter for the SLORC column was, I think, the same as being in Hell. That's why all the porters are always thinking about escape.

I and my friend Maung Myint ran together. We are from the same village. After that it took me 5 days to get here to the Karen office. Along the way we couldn't get any rice. Two days after we escaped we met 5 other [escaped] porters and joined with them. The next day we reached a place where we could see that LIB 404 had stopped for a rest and then left. At that place Maung Myint was wounded by a land mine. His left leg was blown off from the knee down. We carried him and tried to save him but 2 days later, before we reached the Karen office, he died.

All our lives under the BSPP [Burma Socialist Programme Party, Ne Win's pre-1988 dictatorship] and SLORC we have served as "volunteers", operations porters, or emergency porters, and then we have to pay "voluntary funds" and porter fees every month to the Village LORC. So living from day to day is very difficult, and people do not like the SLORC but we are afraid of them. They can put you in jail without trial. Now my situation is better, and I thank the [Karen] authorities here for helping us porters and treating us as friends.

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INTERVIEW #4.

The following is summarized from an interview with a schoolteacher in a SLORC school in Tavoy District which was conducted on 21 March 1995. Personal details are omitted for safety reasons.

I am a primary school principal. My salary is 1150 Kyat per month. Deductions from this are 90.80 Kyat for the insurance policy, 10 Kyat Miscellaneous fund, and 2 Kyat Pension fund, total 102.80 Kyat. Sometimes there is also an "emergency fund" they collect whenever they need it. We have to draw our salary in Tavoy. It has been 3 months since I have drawn my salary, because I took a loan of 6,000 Kyat from the Tavoy Loan Association [a government-run enterprise]. The interest is 5% per month. I have 6 members in my family, so my salary is not enough to support them and that's why I had to take a loan. Now the district educational officer has sent an order through the township officer that we have to do overtime teaching. The students have to pay 30 Kyat each per month for this [but this money goes to the authorities, not the teachers].

There are 150 students in my school and 3 teachers - it is not enough teachers. The school was built by the villagers with their own money. It is made of bamboo with a leaf roof. It is not so good in the rain. We reported this matter many times to the education authorities, yet the school is just as you see it now. We have no books, the students have to buy them from the market. Usually, only about 80 to 100 of the 150 students are at school. The main reason some are absent is that their parents are poor. Some people live by having an orchard, some live by dry cultivation of rice. Other than the government staff [only a few people], other villagers have to go to work on the railway construction. Some students have to stay at home while their parents go to do the labour, and some have to go themselves if their parents are sick. No excuse can be given. Some students are also absent because they do not have enough rice to bring for lunch.

We open our school every day, but whenever the SLORC troops enter the village our school is closed because the villagers have to flee porter-chasing. We have no plan to repair our school, because the villagers are already weary of porter fees and railway construction. They have trouble with finances and also with their time. Therefore we have decided not to repair our school this year.

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#5 Village Summary.

Following is a summary of some of the monthly demands imposed on the hundreds of villages in Tavoy District. The Village LORC chairman, generally a civilian in the village appointed (often against his will) by SLORC, is responsible for arranging forced labour, collecting all money and forwarding it to the local SLORC military. He is under their orders, and will be tortured if the demands are not met. None of the money, not even the "village development fund", is put back into the village. Instead, the SLORC officers spend it on themselves, and send the bulk of it to their families in Rangoon and other cities, with a cut going to SLORC money-laundering corporations such as Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings Ltd. This is just a tiny portion of the wealth now being robbed from rural villagers to finance development in the urban areas. Every month, 1,987,000 Kyat is being stolen from the 28 villages listed below as "porter fees" and "development fees" alone, all of which goes to SLORC and its officers (Shan Ma Leh Swe section of Tavoy Town is excluded from the total, as no number of houses is given). At the same time, these 28 villages are forced to provide 1,178 forced labourers every day, at all times, on a rotating basis, for railway and porter duty, not counting captured porters and other forced labour. To get figures for all of Burma, you would have to multiply these numbers by a thousand or more to account for all the villages.

Saw Pya Village, Thayet Chaung Township: There are 300 houses in Saw Pya village. Every 15 days, 30 villagers have to go to work on Ye-Tavoy railway construction. If a person cannot go when his turn comes he has to pay 2,000 Kyats to the VLORC chairman. Each family has to pay 200 Kyat per month to the VLORC chairman as porter fees. The village has to give 4 men per month as stand-by porters to the SLORC soldiers, and anyone who cannot go when his turn comes must pay 6,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. A group of soldiers from SLORC #403 Battalion is stationed at Saw Pya village. The villagers have to provide 2 porters to these troops every day. People who can't go when their turn comes have to pay 150 Kyats as fine. The duties of these 2 porters are finding firewood, carrying water, and cooking meals for the soldiers.

Chaung Sone Village, Ye Pyu Township: Chaung Sone village has about 200 households. 25 people from the village have to go every 15 days as railway labourers, and if a person fails to go he has to pay 1,500 Kyat. Each family also has to pay 200 Kyat every month porter fees, and 10 people from the village have to go for a month at a time for porter duty. If a person can't go when his turn comes he has to pay 5,000 Kyat to the Village LORC. Every 7 days, 15 villagers have to go as labourers for #408 and #409 Battalions. Anyone who cannot go on his turn has to pay 700 Kyat to the Village LORC and also has to go to jail, so they must go when their turn comes. The villagers also have to give 50 Kyat per family per month to the Village LORC as a "village development fund". As Chaung Sone village is close to a SLORC base, the troops often come to the village, and every time they take chickens, ducks, pigs and other things without asking permission.

Ka Lone Hta Village, Ye Pyu Township: The village has 300 houses, and 20 people have to go each month for railway labour. People who can't go have to pay 3,000 Kyat. Each family has to pay 100 Kyat per month as porter fees. The village has to provide 4 permanent stand-by porters each month, and people who can't go at their turn must either find someone to go in their place or pay 5,000 Kyat. Battalion #407 is stationed at Ka Lone Hta village. The villagers have to provide 6 people to these troops on rotating one-week shifts. People who can't go at their turn must pay 1,500 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. These 6 people have to take their own food for 7 days, and their duties are to find firewood, cook for the soldiers, carry water for the soldiers, dig trenches and bunkers, and carry the ammunition for the soldiers whenever they go on patrol.

Na Bu Leh Village, Ye Pyu Township: There are about 1,000 houses in Na Bu Leh village. 50 people have to go work at the railway every month, for the whole month. They select the workers by drawing ballots. People who are not drawn to go have to pay 1,000 Kyat to the Village LORC as "railway fund". People who are drawn to go have to either go or pay 3,000 Kyat to the Village LORC. Each family also has to pay 200 Kyat per month porter fees, and 10 people have to go for rotating porter duty every month. If a person cannot go on his turn, he has to pay 4,000 Kyat to the Village LORC. Each family also has to pay 50 Kyat to the Village LORC for the "village development fund". Each family was also ordered to provide 5 wooden sleepers for the railway, and any family which fails to provide them must pay 1,000 Kyat. Since 1993 several other villages, such as Shin Tabi and Pyun Sa Leh, have also been forced to move to Na Bu Leh.

Shan Ma Leh Swe Section, Tavoy Town: People in the town are no longer forced to go to work on the railway, only people in the villages. Instead of going, people in Shan Ma Leh Swe section have to pay 450 Kyat per month per family. Each family also has to pay 50 Kyat per month porter fees, and 5 people have to go for porter duty for a month at a time. If a person can't go he has to pay 5,000 Kyat. Each family also has to pay 50 Kyat per month for the "development fund".

Taung Thone Lone Village, Tavoy Township: There are about 800 houses in the village, and 60 people have to go as railway labourers every 15 days. If a person fails to go he has to pay 1,500 Kyat. Each family has to pay 150 Kyat per month as porter fees, and 10 villagers have to go as porters each month. Anyone who can't go on his turn has to pay 6,000 Kyat to the Village LORC. In addition, 5 villagers have to go work at the Army camp near the village every day. Villagers who fail to go have to pay 150 Kyat each.

Maung Pyo Village, Tavoy Township: The village has about 100 houses. 10 villagers have to go as railway labourers every 15 days. Anyone who fails to go has to pay 1,500 Kyat to the Village LORC. Each family has to pay 90 Kyat per month porter fees, and 5 villagers have to go as porters for the month. People who fail to go on their turn have to pay 5,000 Kyat. Each family also has to pay 50 Kyat per month to the "village development fund".

Hein Dah Village, Tavoy Township: The village has 450 houses, and 40 people have to go for railway labour for 15 days at a time every 15 days. People who can't go have to pay 2,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. Each family has to pay 250 Kyat per month porter fees, and the village has to send 5 people per month as stand-by porters. People who can't go have to pay 5,000 Kyat. Battalion #25 is stationed in Hein Dah village, and the village has to provide 5 porters to these troops in 15-day shifts. People who can't go at their turn have to pay 600 Kyat to the SLORC camp commander. These 5 porters have to take their own food with them, and their duties are to carry water, cook for the soldiers, find firewood, and carry all the soldiers' gear and ammunition when they go on patrol.

Yin Hlaing Village, Ye Pyu Township: There are 200 houses in Yin Hlaing village. 40 people have to go to work on the railway each month, and anyone who cannot go when his turn comes must pay 3,000 Kyat. The village has to provide 6 stand-by porters (for a month at a time) and those who cannot go when their turn comes must pay 7,000 Kyat. Each month every family has to pay 300 Kyat as porter fees.

Pyat That Village, Ye Pyu Township: Pyat That village has 300 houses. Each month 30 people have to go work on the railway, and those who cannot go at their turn must pay 3,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. The VLORC chairman collects 150 Kyat per month from each family as porter fees, and 5 people have to go as stand-by porters for the SLORC each month. Those who cannot go at their turn must pay 5,000 Kyat. The VLORC chairman also collects 50 Kyat per month from each family for the village "development fund".

Ta Hlaing Ya Village, Ye Pyu Township: There are 40 houses in the village, and 15 people have to go for railway labour for the whole month every month. People who cannot go have to pay 3,000 Kyat. Each family has to pay 200 Kyat per month porter fees. The village has to give 2 people as stand-by porters every month, and those who cannot go at their turn must pay 6,000 Kyat.

Thin Gan Don Village, Tavoy Township: The village has about 60 houses. Ten people have to go for railway labour every 15 days, and those who can't go must pay 1,500 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. Every month each family has to pay 150 Kyat porter fees, and the village has to send 5 people as stand-by porters. People who can't go at their turn must pay 5,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman.

Section B, Laung Lone Town, Laung Lone Township: This section of town has 400 houses. About 60 people per month have to go for railway labour, and people who cannot go have to pay 3,000 Kyat. Every month each family has to pay 200 Kyat porter fees, and 10 people have to go as SLORC stand-by porters. People who can't go as standby porters must pay 4,000 Kyat when their turn comes.

Sone Sin Village, Thayet Chaung Township: There are 500 houses in the village, and every 15 days the village has to send 50 people for railway labour. People who can't go at their turn must pay 1,500 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. Each month 10 people have to go as stand-by porters for SLORC, and those who can't go must pay 4,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. Each family has to pay 150 Kyat per month as porter fees.

Moe Shwe Gu Village, Thayet Chaung Township: There are about 200 houses in the village. Every 15 days, 27 people have to go for railway labour, and people who cannot go at their turn must pay 2,000 Kyat each. Each family has to pay 200 Kyat per month porter fees, and 5 people have to go as stand-by porters for SLORC each month. Any who cannot go must pay 5,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. The village also has to send porters to Battalions 403, 404, and 405, and when they go they must take all their own food with them.

Maung Ma Kan Village, Laung Lone Township: The village has about 1,500 houses, and every month 100 people have to go for railway labour. People who can't go have to pay 6,000 Kyat. Porter fees are 150 Kyat per month per family, and 10 villagers have to go as stand-by porters every month. Those who can't go must pay 5,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. Battalion #104 ordered each family in the village to provide one wood post to build a fence around their position.

P'Ka Ree Village, Tavoy Township: The village has about 400 households, and 30 people have to go for railway labour every 15 days. People who can't go when their time comes have to pay 1,500 Kyat. Each month, every family has to pay 100 Kyat porter fees and 5 people have to go as standby porters. People who can't go have to pay 5,000 Kyat. A group of troops from #402 Battalion also demands 2 porters every day, and if a person can't go when his turn comes he has to pay 100 Kyat per day to their camp commander.

Kyauk Yat Village, Tavoy Township: There are about 200 houses in the village. 30 people have to go for railway labour every 15 days, and any person who can't go has to pay 1,500 Kyat. Each month every family has to pay 100 Kyat as porter fees and 5 people have to go to the Army camp as standby porters. Anyone who can't go when his turn comes has to pay 4,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman.

Taung Min Pyaung Village, Laung Lone Township: The village has about 300 households. 50 people have to go for railway construction every 15 days, and anyone who can't go at his turn must pay 1,500 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. Villagers also have to pay 100 Kyat per month porter fees and provide 5 people every month to the SLORC Army as standby porters. People who can't go have to pay 4,000 Kyat.

Shan Ma Twin Village, Tavoy Township: There are about 400 houses in the village, and 40 people have to go work on railway construction every 15 days. People who can't go have to pay 1,500 Kyat. Every family has to pay 100 Kyat per month as porter fees, and 5 people have to rotate as porters every month. People who can't go as porters must pay 5,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman.

Zee Kyat Village, Ye Pyu Township: There are about 200 houses in the village. Every 15 days, 20 people have to go as railway workers. People who cannot go when their turn comes have to pay 1,500 Kyat each. Porter fees are 100 Kyat per month per family, and the village has to provide 5 porters on a rotating basis every month. Anyone who can't go must pay 4,000 Kyat.

Section A, Ye Pyu Town, Ye Pyu Township: There are about 150 households in this section of town. 60 people have to go for railway labour every month, and people who can't go have to pay 1,500 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. Ye Pyu Town has Sections A, B, C, and D, about 900 houses altogether, and 300 people have to go as railway labour for 15 days every 15 days. Each family has to pay 200 Kyat porter fees per month, and the town has to provide 20 porters on rotating basis each month. People who can't go must pay 5,000 Kyat each. Each family also has to pay 200 Kyat every month to the SLORC township chairman for the "development fund".

Ka Nyin Inn Village, Ye Pyu Township: The village has about 30 households, and 6 villagers have to go as railway labourers every 15 days. Anyone who can't go when his turn comes must pay 1,500 Kyat to the VLORC chairman. Every month each family must pay 150 Kyat porter fees, and 3 villagers have to go for rotating porter duty. People who can't go must pay 5,000 Kyat. Each family also has to pay 50 Kyat per month to the "village development fund".

Myo Haung Village, Laung Lone Township: The village has about 500 houses. 50 people have to go for railway labour for 15 days every 15 days. People who can't go at their turn must pay 1,500 Kyat. Porter fees are 100 Kyat per family per month, and every month 5 people have to go for rotating porter duty. People who can't go have to pay 7,000 Kyat to the VLORC chairman, who also collects 50 Kyat per month from every family for the "village development fund".

Ka Pya Village, Tavoy Township: The village has 200 houses. 20 people have to go for railway labour for 15 days every 15 days. People who can't go at their turn must pay 1,500 Kyat. Porter fees are 100 Kyat per family per month, and every week 5 people have to go for rotating porter duty. People who can't go have to pay 6,000 Kyat.

Thayet Na Kwa Village, Thayet Chaung Township: The village has 300 houses, and every 15 days 30 people have to go for railway labour for 15 days. People who can't go at their turn must pay 1,500 Kyat. Every family must pay porter fees of 150 Kyat per family per month, and every week 7 people have to go for rotating porter duty. People who can't go have to pay 7,000 Kyat each.

Yo Moh Village, Tavoy Township: The village has 200 houses. For railway labour they must send 20 people every 15 days. People who can't go at their turn must pay 1,500 Kyat. Every month each family must pay 200 Kyat as porter fees and each week 5 people have to go for rotating porter duty. People who can't go when their turn comes have to pay 6,000 Kyat each.

Shin Pyu Pin Village, Thayet Chaung Township: The village has 150 houses. 10 people have to go for railway labour for 15 days every 15 days. People who can't go at their turn must pay 1,500 Kyat. Every family has to pay 150 Kyat porter fees per month, and every week 4 people have to go for rotating porter duty. People who can't go have to pay 7,000 Kyat.

Yin Hlaing Village, Ye Pyu Township: The village has 250 houses. 25 people have to go for railway labour every month for the whole month. People who can't go at their turn must pay 3,000 Kyat. Porter fees are 300 Kyat per family per month, and every week 10 people have to go for rotating porter duty. People who can't go when their turn comes have to pay 6,000 Kyat each.